Papers 1950 to 1959

Notes Upon the History of the City Lieutenancy
Gilbert Davis
13 March 1950
The City trained bands, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries; earliest Commission of City Lieutenancy in 1617; City trained bands fighting for Parliament during the Civil War; Act of 1662 establishing the Lieutenancy as it exists today; Trophy Tax; preparations against the Young Pretender in 1745; trained bands absorbed into the Militia from 1794; foundation of the Volunteer Force in 1858; modern successors to the trained bands.
The London Food Markets
W.F. Bonsor OBE
12 June 1950
Reliance of Londoners on markets for food; how the food reached the markets; non-profit-making nature of markets before the 17th century; mainly retail nature of London’s markets; effect of London’s markets on the Home Counties and further afield; growth of middle-men or agents between supplier and market; increased number of market gardens around London; particular characteristics of Smithfield Market, the Borough Market in Southwark and the Stocks Market; possible future of the Corporation’s markets.
St Mary-Le-Bow Church
Col. C.C.O. Whiteley OBE, MC, JP
27 September 1950
Possible Roman foundations in the crypt; the building since Norman times; origin of the name “Bow”; adjacent site of Royal Sild, from which royalty watched jousts and events in Cheapside; rebuilding after the Great Fire of London; dragon weathervane; Bow Bells; church plate.
London and the Royal Navy
Commander R.J. Hayward RD, RNR
29 December 1950
London’s interests in the sea; merchant shipping and Londoners’ assistance to the Crown in providing ships for defence in times of war, especially during medieval Anglo-French wars; London’s help against the Armada in 1588; London and the Ship Money dispute with Charles I; ships bearing the name London; City honours granted to great naval figures in Napoleonic wars; 20th century hospitality to naval figures.
A Short Paper on Epping Forest
A.J. Osborn
30 July 1951
Brief history of the Forest since its foundation by William I; commoners’ rights; gradual encroachments, increasing in the early 19th century; the Corporation of London’s acquisition of commoners’ rights in the Forest through its purchase of Aldersbrook Farm for the City of London Cemetery; the Corporation’s legal battle to prevent further enclosure of the Forest and its eventual victory; the Epping Forest Act 1878; the Forest and its government in 1951; local landmarks and legends; notable people associated with the Forest; Queen Elizabeth’s Hunting Lodge and Copthall; modern and recent threats to the Forest from War Department works and housing schemes.
London Bridge
S.J. Fox
29 October 1951
Probable Roman bridge; 1st reference to London Bridge in 980; destruction of it by King Olaf in 1014 and the rhyme “London Bridge is broken down”; Peter de Colechurch’s stone bridge, built 1176-1209 and links with the Church; size of the Bridge and the houses which were built upon it before their removal in 1760; famous stories relating to the Bridge; royal entrances and pageants there; the Bridge House Estates properties and historical income to 1950; beneficial working class housing south of the Thames built by the Bridge House Trust.
The Romance of Private Banking
Alderman F.A. Hoare
31 December 1951
Gold shortage leading Charles II to refuse to repay over £1,000,000 owed to London merchants in 1672; Goldsmith bankers acting as safety deposits in the 17th century; growth of receipt notes and cheques (first cheque in 1676); famous figures in banking: Thomas Leyland of Liverpool and his involvement in lucrative slavery; his partnership with William Roscoe the humanitarian and abolitionist in Clarke’s and Roscoe’s Bank 1802-1806; Leyland’s increasing fortune and success in Liverpool; Jonathan Backhouse of Darlington, Quaker banker and popular stories about him; stories of the rivalry, friendship and similarities between Child’s Bank, 1 Fleet Street and Hoares Bank, 37 Fleet Street from the 17th century to 1924; the history of Hoares Bank and its survival as the last of once 721 private banks.
The River Thames
W.E. Sykes MC, JP
31 March 1952
Weirs and locks on the River, and the competing interests of bargemen, fishermen, millers and the riverside population; grant of jurisdiction over the Thames to the City of London by Richard I in 1197; problems with weirs and rubbish in the River in the Middle Ages; appointment of the Navigation Committee in 1770 and its work in clearing obstructions from 1774; acquisition of all tollpath tollgates  below Staines and the construction of pound locks at Chertsey, Shepperton, Sunbury and Teddington; the Corporation’s Thames barges; railway competition; the Corporation’s loss of the Thames Conservancy under the 1857 Act; Thames conservancy after 1857; the establishment of the Port of London Authority in 1908 for the Thames east of Teddington Lock; the Thames Board of Conservators and a detailed account of its work in 1952; fishing on the Thames; swans and swan-upping.
[The author was the Corporation’s representative on the Thames Board of Conservancy, and Chairman of its Finance and General Purposes Committee at the time the article was written.]
The Wine Trade and the City of London
Alan S Lamboll
30 June 1952
The London wine trade in Roman and medieval times; the establishment and role of the Vintners’ Company; the growth of spirits in the 17th century and the establishment of the Distillers’ Company; gin in the 18th century; the introduction of port wine and cylindrical bottles in the 18th century; Gladstone’s reform of duty on wines and spirits after 1860 and the introduction of off-licences making wine more accessible; the destruction of French vineyards by Phylloxera after 1870 and the rarity of wine; the current [1952] expensiveness of wine and the small number of people who could afford it.
The Office of Clerk of a Livery Company
H.W. Keith Calder
30 September 1952
Historical aspects of office of clerk; indispensability of the offices of clerk and beadle to each Company; beadles becoming Clerks in the 16th century; growth of clerks due to increased Company business from 16th century; duties and salaries of clerks; various fellowships of Company clerks; position of clerks in 1952.
Notes on Some of the Guild Churches of the City of London
Sir Frederick Tidbury-Beer
29 December 1952
Numbers of City churches from medieval times onwards; destruction of many in 1666 Fire of London and subsequently, and in the Second World War; list of the 16 Guild Churches designated in the post-War reorganisation; details of 6 of these: All Hallows London Wall, St Botolph Without Aldersgate, St Andrew Holborn, St Margaret Pattens, St Benet Paul’s Wharf, St Dunstan in the West; appendices of lists of churches not rebuilt after the 1666 Fire of London, those demolished between 1666 and 1939, pre-Fire churches existing in 1939, Wren’s churches existing in 1939 and other churches existing in 1939, with annotation as to those destroyed in the Second World War.
The City and the Crown
Deputy J. Lionel P. Denny MC, JP
30 March 1953
Old English kingship and the elective principle; Londoners’ perceived rights in this process; medieval kingship and the evolution of hereditary succession; London’s crucial role in the accessions of Edward IV and Richard III; the accession proclamation; signing the accession proclamation; the proclamation in the City; Coronation ceremonies; the Coronation banquet; the Lord Mayor in Westminster Abbey; the Royal entry; 20th century Coronations.
The Foyle Fishery Case
T.E. Chester Barratt MA, LL.B
29 June 1953
The Irish Society’s legal battle in the High Court of Justice, Dublin, in 1948 to put a stop to extensive poaching of the Society’s fisheries in Northern Ireland by poachers based in Eire; details of the intricacies of the legal case, which turned into the Society’s defence of its right to the fisheries; doctrine of historical impossibility and invoking of Magna Carta; the Society’s attempt to prove its uninterrupted possession of the fishery and the unfortunate wording of the Society’s 1662 charter; the Bishop of Derry’s fishings since 1676; the Society’s loss of the case, but the positive outcome of this; establishment of the Joint Ulster-Eire Fishery Board to clear out the poachers and control the fishery, which could never have happened without the legal case.
Gog and Magog
P.E. Jones LL.B, F.R.Hist.S.
30 November 1953
Giants in folklore; use of giants in City pageants from 1413; use of giants in pageants in other English cities in the Middle Ages; use of the names Gogmagog and Corineus for the City giants from the mid-16th century, to recall the legendary foundation of London by Brutus as New Troy; the legend of Gogmagog and Corineus; corruption of the names to Gog and Magog by 1700; setting up of the figures in Guildhall in 1672 and again by Richard Saunders in 1709; work and life of Saunders; destruction of the figures in the bombing of 29 December 1940; replacement of them at the expense of Sir George Wilkinson by David Evans FRBS; details of Evans’s other work; details of the new figures, then [1953] about to be temporarily moved for the restoration of the Guildhall roof.
Blackfriars Bridge
P.E. Jones LL.B, F.R.Hist.S.
29 March 1954
London Bridge the only crossing until the 18th century; Corporation’s opposition to proposed bridges at Vauxhall, 1721, Putney, 1729 and Westminster, 1736 as Conservators of the River Thames; its promotion of an Act for a Blackfriars Bridge in 1756; tolls and the financing of the Bridge (not initially Bridge House); Robert Myle’s design; bridge opened 1769; technical problems; access roads across St George’s Fields and their subsequent development; removal of toll 1785; repairs in 1833; damage caused by scouring due to building of new London Bridge 1825-1831; Cubitt’s new Blackfriars Bridge, built 1864-1869; opening by Queen Victoria 1869.
An Account of Some City Printers
The Rt. Hon. Lord Ebbisham TD
31 May 1954
Author’s attendance at festival in Mainz in 1940 to commemorate 500 of printing; printing in London since Caxton in the 15th century; office of City Printer from 16th century; selection of printed proclamations issued by the Corporation; unpopularity and excesses of Lord Mayor Henry Winchester, a Stationer; long-standing family printing firms in the City; the author’s firm’s handling of numbering of bank-notes and printing of clothing coupons.
Water Supply of London
Col. W.W. Dove CBE, TD, DL
27 September 1954
Water supply in the City since Roman times, from the Thames, springs and wells; the Great Conduit in Cheapside, built in 1274 supplied from Tyburn in lead pipes and its maintenance; construction of other public conduits, some by charitable bequests, including Whittington’s; 16th century visits by the Lord Mayor to the conduit heads at Tyburn, Paddington and Marylebone, and the erection of rooms for dinners, including the construction of the Lord Mayor’s Banqueting House, north of Oxford Street at the Tyburn conduit head; guild of Water Bearers from 1496; Peter Morice’s water wheel at London Bridge from 1582 and the London Bridge Water Works; Hugh Myddelton’s New River from Chadwell and Amwell in Hertfordshire and the New River Company, incorporated 1619; growth of water companies 17th-19th centuries; piped water; 20th century Water Board; discovery of Roman wooden water pipe at the Walbrook temple of Mithras.
The London Charterhouse
Paul Paget
17 January 1955
Sir Walter de Manny’s purchase of the site for the burial of plague victims in 1349 and the erection of a chapel on the ground; establishment of Carthusian monks on the site in 1371; layout of the monastery; detailed account of the rediscovery of Walter de Manny’s grave following the destruction of the site by enemy action in the Second World War and his reburial; monastery sold by Henry VIII to Lord North in 1545; its destruction and the building of a palace from the remains; sale of the house to Thomas Sutton in 1611; foundation of Sutton’s Hospital and  School under charter of James I.
Underground Waterways of London
Col. C.C.O. Whiteley OBE, MC, JP
18 April 1955
Geology and geography of London area; springs and 17th-18th century fashionable spas; details of the Westbourne, Ty Bourne, Hole-bourne or Fleet and Wall Brook or Walbrook, with special emphasis on the last two.
The Surrender of the Sword
P.E. Jones LL.B., F.R.Hist.S.
11 July 1955
Common misconception of the Sovereign asking permission to enter the City; description of modern ceremony and its development since the 14th century; royal gifts of swords and their symbolism in London and elsewhere; the Swordbearer; descriptions of royal entries 16th – 19th centuries.
The Development of Hall Marks on London Silver Plate
A. Charles Trinder MA
14 November 1955
Hallmarks and their introduction to England from France in 1300 for towns of origin; Goldsmiths’ Company to administer the system; makers’ marks added 1363; date mark from 1478 and the reasons for it; alterations in marks, especially from 1697 when the silver plate shortage was addressed; restoration of old sterling standard in 1720; new mark for duty 1784-1890; hallmarks for foreign plate; 20th century coronation marks; the necessity of counting the spoons after this meeting!
The City Records
W.E. Sykes MC, JP
30 January 1956
Historical imitations of access to the City’s archives; letters requesting access from Thomas Carlyle and Thomas Babington Macaulay MP; the Corporation’s care and custody of the archives since the Middle Ages; the Town Clerk as Keeper of the Records since the 15th century; recent measures to exclude atmospheric pollution; staff of the Records Office in 1956; scope of the records; publications; status of the Records Office.
The Silk Industry
Deputy S.R. Walker CBE
30 April 1956
Origins of sericulture in China in 2640 BC; its introduction into England in the 14th century; silk women in the City 14th – 16th century and their decline in the face of increasing industrialisation; Huguenot silk weavers in London in 17th century; developments in production culminating in the Jacquard loom in the early 19th century; silk manufacture moving out of London after 1773; blow to British manufacture after introduction of free trade in 1860; use of silk in First World War and concentration of 90% of raw silk production being in Japanese hands in 1939; introduction of nylon and rayon as silk substitutes; last English producer of silk.
The City Justices and Justice Rooms
Alderman C.J. Harman
29 October 1956
Responsibility of Aldermen for peace and good order in their Wards; Lord Mayors as Keepers of the Peace and development of Aldermen as ex officio JPs; possible origin of the Lord Mayor’s Justice Room in the 15th century; history and description of the Mansion House and Guildhall Justice Rooms and the types of cases heard in them; the current excellence of the Aldermen as JPs.
The Swordbearer
T. Kingsley Collett CBE
31 December 1956
Swordbearer as first Esquire to the Lord Mayor; origins lost in history, but certainly in evidence in the early 15th century; appointment of office-holder by various bodies until his nomination became a perquisite of the Lord Mayor; fees of the office up to the early 19th century; duties, authority and customs associated with the office; list of Swordbearers.
[First meeting of the GHA at the Mansion House, according to text.]
The History of the Thames Watermen
Ian E. Philp
29 April 1957
Long history of watermen and lightermen on the Thames; Royal use of them; Acts to regulate them from the 16th century; Lord Mayor’s water procession introduced in 1454; Watermen and Lightermen’s Company from 1559; types of boats, cargoes and work; threats to the trade from coaches from the 16th century, bridges from the 18th century and steamers from the 19th century; Doggett’s Coat and Badge Race, established 1715; modern licensed watermen.
Royal Commissions and Committees of Enquiry Touching the Corporation of London
Wentworth L Rowland
30 December 1957
Forthcoming Royal Commission on the Government of the Metropolis; earlier Commissions, their recommendations and results: 1833 Municipal Corporations Commission, 1854 Commission on the Existing State of the Corporation of London, later Commissions in 1861, 1866, 1867 and 1884; establishment of the London County Council in 1889; 1893 Amalgamation of the City and County of London Commission; 1921 Commission; continuing uniqueness of the City.
History of Inflation
A.J. Osborn
31 March 1958
Causes and inevitability of inflation; increase in prices from Babylonian times onwards; new supplies of gold and silver from the Americas into Spain in the 16th century and the enormous inflation caused by it; shortage of coin in the 17th century and adoption of paper money in the North American colonies; paper currency inflation in the 17th century; French Revolution and paper money; financing of the First World War by inflation, followed by period of deflation in UK and America; disastrous inflation in Germany following the War; measures since then to control inflation; City’s historic role in the country’s economy.
Magna Carta
Douglas R.H. Hill MA
30 June 1958
The recent return to the Corporation of an inspeximus of Magna Carta of 1300 by the Public Record Office in 1958; Magna Carta 1215 and its subsequent re-issues; the City’s 1297 Magna Carta and other copies elsewhere in the world; the 1300 inspeximus and its background; the 1833 Municipal Corporations Royal Commission and the ensuing copying of the City’s charters by Thomas Duffus Hardy; how the 1300 inspeximus went missing from the Corporation and ended up in the Public Record Office; the Corporation’s current care of its archives.
The Theatre and the City of London
Alan S. Lamboll
30 September 1958
Development of theatre in spite of, not because of, the Corporation’s opposition; growth of groups of players under patrons’ badges in the 16th century; conflict over regulation and suppression of plays between the Corporation and the Privy Council in the 16th century; control passed to the Master of the Revels, a member of the Royal Household subordinate to the Lord Chamberlain’s in 1573; building of James Burbage’s Theatre outside the City in Shoreditch in 1576 and the Curtain Playhouse nearby in 1577; use of part of old Blackfriars Monastery as a theatre by the Master of the Revels; Henslowe’s Rose Theatre on Bankside, 1587; Swan Theatre, Old Paris Gardens, Bankside, 1593; the Globe Theatre, Bankside, 1597; Hope Theatre, Bankside, 1613; other theatres built before 1640; siting of the Guildhall School of Music and Drama near the site of the Dorset Gardens Theatre; Bernard Miles’s Mermaid Theatre at Puddle Dock [opened 1959]; Corporation’s reversal of its historic anti-theatrical stance in its future approval of a theatre in the new Barbican development.
Common Crier and Serjeant-at-Arms
P.E. Jones LL.B., FSA
29 December 1958
Lord Mayor’s Esquires; the Crystal Sceptre and subsequent City maces, borne by the Serjeant-at-Arms, who also acted as Common Crier; Serjeant-at-Arms’s house, duties and emoluments; use of maces in England since the Middle Ages; use of insignia in the City; list of office-holders.
The Office of Sheriff of the City of London
Major T. Guy F. Richardson, Deputy
31 March 1959
Origin of the office as Saxon Portreeve in the eleventh century; royal charters relating to the shrievalty in the Middle Ages; historic and current shrieval elections and full details of their ceremonial; Under-Sheriffs; duties and role of the Sheriffs.
The Barbican – In Retrospect
Deputy Eric F Wilkins
29 June 1959
Continuing desolation of the Barbican area after the War; history of the area and the Ward of Cripplegate Without; details of the history of its six principal streets: Barbican, Beech Street/Lane, Red Cross Street, Whitecross Street, Grub Street (now Milton Street) and Tenter Street;
The Old Bailey
Victor Durand QC
31 August 1959
City’s gates used as prisons; seven centuries of appalling conditions in Newgate Gaol; Whittington’s Newgate and subsequent charitable bequests to the gaol; flagrant breaches of regulations and extortion by keepers and turnkeys; the adjacent Sessions House; George Dance’s new gaol and sessions house in the 1770s; Gordon Riots 1780; public executions move from Tyburn to outside Newgate in 1784 until abolished in 1868; reforms in punishments and prisons; new Sessions House 1907;  current crime levels and work of the Old Bailey.
City of London Police
C.F. Lewis
1 December 1959
Brief history of City policing since 1066; watch and ward and constables; 1737 Act and nightly watch and its influence on Peel’s Metropolitan Police Force, 1829; attempts to amalgamate the City’s police with it strenuously resisted by the Corporation; City of London Police Act 1839; buildings and establishment; Houndsditch Murders and Siege of Sydney Street, 1910; traffic lights, 1930; inter-force communications; Second World War; organisation of and changes in City Police since 1949; women PCs; mounted police; dogs; cadets; specialist branches, including Fraud Squad; current difficulties in recruitment.